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After centuries of fighting for survival, Jews in Western European countries were finally granted citizenship in the 19th century. However, Eastern European countries like Russia were still encouraging violent pogroms and antisemitism towards their Jewish populations.
Following the brutal events of World War Two, Jews in the Soviet Union attempted to escape their dire situation by applying for immigration to Israel. Unfortunately, these attempts were blocked by the leader of the U.S.S.R, Joseph Stalin.
Enraged by the many injustices they faced, Jewish activists like Anatoly Shcharansky (later, Natan Sharansky) fought to help free the Jews of the Soviet Union, and in turn propelled the movement that successfully dissolved the Soviet Union in 1991.